Sunday, July 21, 2019

Motivation And Vocabulary Learning

Motivation And Vocabulary Learning In current time the demand of learning English is rising tremendously due to lingua franca nature of this language in EFL context which refers to student who study English in non-English language society and ESL who study English in an environment that their mother tongue is English; therefore, so many attention has been given to this field because of economical and educational purposes. Back in the days, during methods era and especially in learning-centered methods the lack of explicit focus on grammar cause the vocabulary to gain an important role. They believe that vocabulary cause better comprehension and with this achievement there will be a language development (Kumaravadivelu, 2008). Although with death of method, this component of language is not dead yet, and it still has an important role in current classes with different styles of teaching. In Richards and Renandya (2002) the importance of this fact has been expressed as in the past , vocabulary teaching and learning were often given little priority in second language programs, but recently there has been a renewed interest in the nature of vocabulary and its role in learning and teaching (p.255). 1. a. the problems that students have in different tasks Many linguists define language as a sign system (Hudson, 2000), which consist of lexicon and grammar. According to Hudson, lexicon refers to mental dictionary. And we have different approaches on vocabulary learning that we will study them in detail on following sections. One of them is Lexical approach, in this approach the focus and emphasis is not on the grammar, syntax and structure but on the lexis or word and word combinations (Richards Rodgers, 2006). Most of these approaches and methods isolating words from the context and teach them explicitly as a single unit or compound (prefabricated) unit, but the problem will come up when the learner wants to use it; they can not place it appropriately in correct situations. For example the word reticent means quiet but the place and the context of using this word is not in the supermarket rather it is in the academic places such as university and college; an English learner will memorize this word and use it when she/he wants to talk to a native sales person or in imaginary role play activity with out awareness of authentic use of it that will cause low motivation. Because when the native speakers feel the lack of language competency they will avoid continuing the conversation. Other problems that can be find in the realm of vocabulary learning / teaching is the use of complicated words by the teacher in the classes which are not appropriate for the students in basic or intermediate levels. According to my own experience and observation, so many EFL classes experience this atmosphere which makes the learners anxious. One of the main reasons for that is the practice of teachers themselves, when a teacher with good general knowledge of English teaches an intermediate students for a year he /she will lose some of his knowledge according to lack of practice then they will bring that practice into their classes. The supervisor of that institute was happy and when the question has been asked about this problem he mentioned Krashens i + 1 hypothesis, but he didnt bring into consideration the level of 1 is not determined yet and how harmful it can be for learners. The mentioned problems make the learners overwhelmed and bewildered on how, when and where to use the words. Should they use the writing words (the words that are usually used in writing) in the speaking tasks or use the speaking words in the writing tasks? This will cause debilitative anxiety and low self-efficacy which refers to external factors. The word self-efficacy is defined in Williams and Burden (1997) as students beliefs about their capabilities to apply effectively the knowledge and skills they already possess and thereby learn new cognitive skill (p.129). When the learners are confused and can not recognize which word to select or when to use the special word, they will refer it to task difficulty (Williams Burden, 1997).This low self-efficacy will cause low motivation (which will be studied in detail in the Body of this paper), and when the learners are not motivated they give up practicing and they think that the task is hard but in reality the absence of practice which is due to low motivation caused that. And when this happen, it not only influence their vocabulary knowledge but also it plays a significant role on other four skills, because when the knowledge of vocabulary is low, the comprehension will be low so the pr oduction. Richards and Renandya (2002) express vocabulary is core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read and write (p.255). Also in their book they mentioned with out the good knowledge of vocabulary and strategies for learning new vocabulary, learners can not progress in the way that their capabilities are and this will cause low motivation then they wont participate in learning opportunities around them such as listening to news, watching movies, listening to the native speaker and using the language in different context(Richards and Renandya ,2002). 1. b. passive and active vocabulary learning There are generally two types of vocabulary in mind, passive and active (Heaton, 1990). By passive vocabulary he refers to reading and listening words (comprehensive). Hunt and Beglar in the book of Richards Renandya (2002) classify it as incidental learning in the long run, most words in both first and second languages are probably learned incidentally, through extensive reading and listening (p.259). We may read so many articles, books, newspapers and texts included different classes of words but it is not possible to use those words in our speaking and writing (production). The emphasis is on speaking because during the utterance we have less time for processing the new words and the speaker tries to use safe words which have been proved before. The other group is active vocabulary. In this group we have writing and speaking words (productive) that refers to the word we use in our speaking and writing so the classification is listening: passive/spoken, reading: passive/written, speaking: active/spoken and writing: active/written(Heaton , 1990, P.51). It is worth mentioning that the amount of words that we comprehended is much larger than the words that we produced.in the research of Oxford Crookall (1990) declared that spoken vocabulary is often smaller than written vocabulary, which is in turn generally smaller than receptive vocabulary (p.23).from that statement they conclude that proficiency in speaking is more difficult for the student to achieve than writing and writing is harder than reading and listening ( Oxford Crookall, 1990). According to my own experience, one of my classes memorized and practiced the 504 essential words but they hardly used those words in their production. The ideal goal for the learners is shifting from passive knowledge of vocabulary to active knowledge of vocabulary and create an atmosphere for better fluency with the activated vocabulary .for the fluency Richards renandya (2002) suggest that fluency is partly depends on developing sight vocabulary through extensive reading and studying high-frequency vocabulary(p.262) and also they expressed that fluency is cyclic use of already known words so the students can produce an utterance without hesitation(Richards and renandya,2002). To achieve these goal different variables should be taken into consideration such as time, books, methods of teaching, students back ground knowledge and so on. Mentioned variables will effect the learners motivation. For example in that class if the time and duration had been extended the result would have been different. Students could use those words so they didnt think about the hardness of the task (external, task difficulty) and they could have higher self- efficacy and better motivation. And they could realize that vocabulary learning is a formidable and complex life-long task (Stahl Nagy, 2006). There is a mutual relationship between motivation and vocabulary learning so when the learners are motivated they will learn more vocabulary and when they learn more vocabulary they will be more motivated, like a cycle. 1. C. absence of enough review of related literature About the title of this paper there are only very few information, studies and review of related literature. the reason for that is scholars and researchers usually consider vocabulary as part of reading skill , Deng (2010) declare motivation for vocabulary learning is different from motivation for reading , so the motivation of vocabulary should be studied separately (p.4). 2. Body There are six categories in the dimensions of vocabulary learning: help-seeking, morphology, context, dictionary use, spelling and phonology (Deng, 2010). The help-seeking is very important in the process of vocabulary learning among EFL students. When the learners dont t know the meaning of the word they will ask for it from the other peer or authority such as teachers or parents (this will be analyzed in detail in the vocabulary learning strategies). Research on this field show that students usually use this strategy rather than checking dictionary because it is easier and to the point, but it has down side too, using dictionary is a skill and when they get use to it they are exposed to more vocabulary learning and authentic pronunciation. In Richards renandya (2002) the importance of dictionary is declared through bilingual dictionaries have been found to result in vocabulary learning (p.263); they also proposed the advantages of bilingual dictionaries over monolingual one. .help-seeking shows that the students are concern about their studies so they have facilitative anxiety. When they realize the meaning, they will be more motiva ted due to understanding the concept of the text. The second category for vocabulary learning is morphology. Hudson (2000) defines morphology as concern the classes of morphemes, and their occurrence in sentences and combination as words (p.8). We can study morphemes in two ways, based on meaning and based on the form with in two subparts, grammatical and lexical morphemes (Hudson, 2000). Study has shown that the student awareness on this division and the characteristic of each grammatical and lexical morpheme such as concreteness, frequency, open-set membership will help them to overcome the difficulty of the task .as an example, when the learners can distinguish between stem, root, suffix and prefix they not only will realize the meaning and function of that word but also they can use this technique to overcome some other hard and complicated task in the realm of vocabulary learning. In this situation learners become more self- actualized in result they will consider themselves as part of the process and they dont rely on external factors (luck, difficulty of the task) so they will have a higher motivation. Williams Burden (1997) declare that the greater the value that individuals attached to the accomplishment or involvement in an activity the more highly motivated they will be both to engage in it initially and later to put sustained effort into succeeding in the activity(p.125). In fact, many examinations have been taken in the morphology and motivation realm, Deng (2010) examined the motivation of morphological knowledge by measuring students motivation to notice and manipulate word parts that contribute to word meanings (p.11). The result of this study shows the significant relationship between motivation and morphological awareness. Another factor which causes lack of motivation is accessibility to morphemes in our lexicon. Lexicon is mental dictionary of the morphemes and signs (Hudson, 2000). Access to morpheme in our lexicon occurs by rhyme, initial sound, and synonym, rough opposite, semantic features, context of occurrence, part of speech and spelling( Hudson, 2000, p.74). Another way for Vocabulary learning is learning the word with in text itself. Contextualization occurs when the unknown meaning of the word is guessed by the reader according to other words and phrases. Contextual use refers to understanding word meanings by scrutinizing surrounding context, including preceding or succeeding phrases and sentences that provide syntactic and semantic cues (Deng, 2010, P.11), it is worth mentioning that this technique is more suitable for advanced learners because vocabulary learning includes learning collocations, associations, and related morphological as well as grammatical patterns ; considering all these elements for guessing the meaning is not possible for basic learners(Richards renandya, 2003). This is very useful technique for the learners to enhance their self-efficacy as well. When they realize that they do not need to know the meaning of all the words to overcome the test or task difficulty, they will see an open window of opportunity for l earning. On the other hand Kelly (1990) declared that unless the context is very constrained, which is relatively rare occurrence or unless there is a relationship with the known word identifiable on the basis of form and supported by context, there is little chance of guessing the correct meaning (p.203). We can learn and access the vocabulary in lexicon with phonology and phonological process. In phonological process the learner can keep the word in the mind by the sound of it and also can have an access to the lexicon by the same application. The Other type is spelling, Deng (2010) presents that spelling is specified as sub category of students motivation in vocabulary learning because spelling helps to learn new vocabulary (p.11). Spelling influences conceptualizations of vocabulary learning (Ehri Wilce, 1986). Through the spelling vocabulary l the image of the words can be established in the mind better than when the spelling is not known and this gives the learner stronger self -esteem. Richards Renandya (2002) express that language -focused instruction includes focusing on the pronunciation and spelling of words; deliberately learning the meaning of a word; memorizing collocations, phrases or sentences containing a word and being corrected for incorrect use of words(p.270). 2. a. types of motivation and vocabulary learning So far we realized that how motivation is related to the vocabulary learning. In this section, we consider types of motivation and the relationship with vocabulary learning. Motivation refers to goal-directed behavior (Masgoret and Gardner, 2003, p.128). It has been studied in different psychological schools of thought such as behaviorist view, cognitivist view and social constructivist view. In behaviorist point of view the concept of motivation is tied to rewards and external factors. Although the behaviorist point of view has been rejected but it can not be fully rejected; some times it plays an important role in vocabulary leaning. The external feedback that learners get will motivate them to continue the vocabulary learning tasks. Some scholars emphasis on the effect of feedback the effort students put into their work outside of class needs to be acknowledged with sufficient feedback to make them feel that the effort was worthwhile in moving them toward their goal (capturing and directing, 1997, p.4 ).so by giving them immediate feedback they will be more motivated in expansion of vocabulary learning. And, William and Burden (1997) declared that behavioral psychologist were the first to recognize the power of feedback as a motivating influence (p. 134). Other perspectives such as achievement motivation can be helpful in vocabulary learning. But it has two phases, one when the learner is highly motivated to accomplish the vocabulary task for external factors such as achieving the first place in the class or for their parents satisfaction. The second phase which is debilitative refers to the situations when the learner avoids participating in the task due to stressful nature of that activity. In result, we can see that the early psychologist approaches toward motivation is simple and deficient. Although there are not enough review of literature in the area of vocabulary learning and motivation but it can be studied in the Gardners integrative and instrumenta l orientation. Masgoret and Gardner (2003) Define integrative orientation as integration refers to an openness to identify, at least in part, with another language community (p.126). In integrative orientation the EFL learners want to be part of the English language community, and they want to integrate themselves with the English culture. This type of orientation is highly related to vocabulary learning. When learners want to be part of the community and they are highly motivated, they should speak or write in the manner that native speaker does. This will cause the learner to focus on expansion of vocabulary, besides using the words in appropriate place as mentioned on the introduction part of this paper. Also Masgoret and Gardener emphasis the adaption of word sounds, pronunciations, word orders, and other behavioral and cognitive features (Masgoret and Gardner, 2003). There are six variables included in the measure of integrative motivation which the main component, consists of attitude, interests and integrative orientation (William Burden, 1997). Attitudes toward the learning situation refer to the individuals reaction to anything associated with the immediate context in which the language is taught (Masgoret and Gardner, 2003, p.127).also Deng which is one of the main references of this paper, investigates motivation particularly attitude in vocabulary learning and defines it as evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor (Deng, 2010, p.8). Sometimes the students are not interested in the target language group but they can be open to all groups (Masgort and Gardner, 2003); in the case of interest, they make themselves involved in vocabulary learning and participate in different tasks which cause further learning. The other type is instrumental orientation; which has less effect on the vocabulary learning compare to integrative orientation. When the learners want to overcome the difficulty of the text, task or exam for achieving a passing mark, financial rewards, furthering a career or gaining promotion they usually have instrumental orientation (William Burden, 1997). This kind of motivation is applicable to vocabulary learning too. When the learners want to get passing mark on an English test they should study appropriate vocabulary for achieving that goal and it is only and only for that purpose. The other approaches toward motivation are cognitive and social constructivist. In cognitive psychologist approach, the most important part is the choice that learners have on their actions (William and Burden, 1997). And in the social constructivist perspectives , the motivation is because of social factors so when one person is motivated, he/she will continue to achieve the goal and the way they are satisfied is different from person to person( William Burden, 1997). There are other perspectives to motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic. In the researches on the vocabulary learning both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations play an important role. But intrinsic motivation which in William and Burden (1997) book has been defined as experience of doing something that generates interest and enjoyment, and the reason for performing the activity lies within the activity itself (p.123) is very important for the vocabulary learning. Because the learners are interested in the task or vocabular y learning, so they try more to get their goals, and they wont give up easily. 2. b. the complexity of words Some times the complexity of words may cause lack of motivation and because there is a mutual relationship between them, it may cause the student to give up the learning. According to Nagy and Scott there are five aspects of vocabulary complexity the first one is incremental- knowing which Deng (2010) defines it as knowing a word is not a matter of all- or- nothing, but incremental process based on small scales (p.9). So it means that the vocabulary knowledge is additive. The learner shouldnt be overwhelmed and unmotivated due to complex nature of vocabulary learning; when they see that they can add to their base knowledge. The second one is multidimensionality-word that consists of grammar, conceptual meaning and morphology which has been explained in the previous sections. Polysemy -words that Yule (1985) defines it as two or more words with the same form and related meanings (p.107). Also yule gives a good example of run that can relate to person or water. When the learner face t his complexity he/she can be bewildered, to avoid this ambiguity different strategies are needed that will be discussed in the following section. The other type is interrelatedness words that Deng explain it with the example of understanding the word bread which is related to understanding of other related words such as powder and wheat (Deng, 2010). And the last one is heterogeneity-word that refers to word class. For example some words are abstract like love and some words are concrete like chair, understanding these two level words are different and the abstract words may cause anxiety among EFL learner and especially between younger ages. Another perspective to words is the division of word knowledge to receptive and productive. Richards Renandya (2002) define the receptive knowledge as one of the aspects of knowledge through reading and listening, and productive knowledge means being able to use in speaking and writing (p.261). The concept of word knowledge is closely related to the passive and active vocabulary. Zhong in his research explain the concept of receptive-productive word as the mastery level of vocabulary knowledge reflected in the learners comprehension and production abilities (p.118) and also in the same paper he demonstrate progressive process of learning a word. The reason that I brought these parts of word and vocabulary learning in to this paper is that in conclusion part we will see there is a mutual relation between learning vocabulary and motivation. According to Zhong the first dimension is partial -precise dimension, it shows the knowledge moves from recognition to vague understanding of the meaning and later to the mastery of precise comprehension (p.118). The second is depth dimension which is the quality of knowing word and the last dimension is receptive and productive dimension. 2. c. vocabulary learning strategies In order to simplify the complexity of the word and vocabulary learning that has a significant role on student anxiety and motivation, some strategies are needed. When the learners are motivated they will seek some ways for better understanding of the text or making use of these strategies for longer retention of words. For this purpose in Richards and Renandya there is a great emphasis on these strategies for inferring words from context as well as those which can help learner retain the meaning (RichardsRenandya,2002). There are different categorizations for vocabulary learning strategies according to different researchers. Oxford Crookall divided the techniques for vocabulary learning in to four categories decontextualizing technique that extract the word from the context completely which help the learners remember how the word is used as a part of language; semi- contextualizing in this technique the new word is related to the learners already known word but still they are not part of the context; the third one is contextualizing technique that the word will be studied in communicative context; and the last one is adaptable that reinforce other techniques (Oxford Crookall , 1990). Decontextualizing technique consists of word lists that are divided into unpaired list and paired list, flashcards and conventional dictionary use; semi contextualizing which is consisted of words grouping ,visual imaginary ,key word ,physical sensation and semantic mapping; contextualizing technique that is processed with in the four skills in general English proficiency; and the last one , adaptable technique which they use structured reviewing (Oxford Crookall, 1990). In the Asgaris research, the division is based on Schmitt classification, and he divides it in discovery strategies and consolidation strategies with five sub- categories consists of determination, social, memory ,cognitive and metacognitive strategies ( Asgari,2010). In the research that has been done by Asgari, she tries to related the learning strategies to vocabulary learning ,although it is acceptable but more specification is needed , because a specific classification for vocabulary learning strategies has been given. Other strategies which are related to learning in general term, can be associated to vocabulary learning as well , such as circumlocution when we describe the unknown word for the listener ; using prefabricated pattern , word coinage , approximation and so on (William Burden, 1997).the mentioned techniques are part of the compensatory strategy, which is crucial for learner productive vocabulary knowledge. When they use this type of strategy they will continue the production and this will cause low anxiety and high degree of motivation. 3. Conclusion So far different aspects of motivation and vocabulary learning have been investigated, the problems that EFL learners have in the classes and generally as the process of learning the second or foreign language beside the kinds of motivation and kinds of words. Also different strategies have been mentioned to compensate the above problems. The reason for this division is first there is not enough literature on this specific subject and second from my own understanding there are mutual relationship between vocabulary learning and motivation. By that I mean when the learners are motivated they will learn vocabulary better and when they learn a word they will be more motivated. So the reason for bringing all the above problems, kinds and strategies is that they are like a chain and they are related to each other. Deng in his research found no difference between male and female in motivation for vocabulary learning and he found a significant relationship between vocabulary learning and mo tivation (Deng, 2010).and also Fernandez Terrazas (2012) in their research found that there is a significant positive relationship between the level of motivation and receptive vocabulary tests grade (p.49). so by considering the level of motivation we can improve vocabulary learning among the EFL learners.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Revenge In Hamlet Essay -- essays research papers

Hamlet   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hamlet is a classic example of a tragedy as Hamlet suffers while trying to avenge his fathers death and eventually dies at the end while attempting to do so. Hamlet feels empty without resolution to his father’s death and since there is no justice system that is going to reveal the truth about his father’s death, he must take it into his own hands. Hamlet delays killing Claudius for a long time after the ghost appears. Hamlet delays his revenge of his fathers death not because he is a coward but because his psychological feelings and need for a perfect revenge cause him to delay in order to wait for the perfect moment to kill Claudius.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When the ghost first appears to Hamlet he tells him that it was his brother who slipped poison in his ear while he was sleeping in the orchard and clearly asks him to get revenge for his untimely murder. The ghost speaks to Hamlet about his father and says, “Revenge his foul and most unnatural murderer';(1.5. 31). Although Hamlet has little doubt that the ghost is not his father’s, he must still prove to himself that Claudius is in fact the murderer before he attempts to kill him. Hamlet decides to have the players act out what the ghost has told him and see Claudius’ reaction. When the play “The Mouse Trap'; is performed, Claudius is shocked by the play and storms out, which is the reaction of guilt that Hamlet had hoped for. The play is named “The Mouse Trap'; because it is designed to catch Claudius so that he reveals his distress of the play and shows that he was the murderer. Hamlet is now certain that Claudius is the murderer of his father and he can now carry out his revenge by murdering him.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hamlets first opportunity to kill Claudius that he actually considers is when Claudius is confessing to god. Hamlet decides not to kill him at this point because he does not want to kill him while he is praying because he will go to heaven. This is the farthest that Hamlet has come to killing Claudius so far as his sword was drawn and ready to be used until he thinks logically and realizes that Claudius will be free from sin at the time of his death. This was a luxury that his father did not even have so why should he allow Claudius to have it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  &... ...es a plan to poison Hamlet but it backfires as Gertrude drinks the cup and both Hamlet and Laertes are cut with the poisoned rapier. When Hamlet learns from Laertes that they are both near death he is put in a must do situation and he reacts without hesitation. He orders the doors locked and for the first time he puts Claudius in a defenseless position and he attacks him with the poison. Claudius dies shortly after and Hamlet has completed his mission to seek revenge for his father’s soul. Hamlet could have easily killed Claudius at any moment if he did not care how it was done. However, Hamlet was looking for the perfect revenge and therefore he passed up many opportunities to kill Claudius. He could have easily followed Claudius out after the play and killed him, he could have easily attacked him while he was praying, or even at any point when he could get Claudius alone, but this would not have been the dramatic revenge that Hamlet was looking for. Hamlet delays his revenge of his fathers death not because he is a coward but because his psychological feelings and need for a perfect revenge cause him to delay in order to wait for the perfect moment to murder Claudius.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Childhood Memories in Once More to the Lake by E.B. White Essay

Once More to the Lake For many people there is a sweet scent, an inviting image, the familiar sound of laughter that bring them back to a place full of childhood images. In â€Å"Once More to the Lake†, author E.B. White longs to bring his audience back to one of the most memorable places in his childhood, a camp on a lake in Maine, starting in about 1904. He shows the reader how he feels he has replaced his own father and is playing the same role he played nearly forty years earlier. White directs his essay at an anonymous audience. Read by children, it is yet another â€Å"when I was your age† story, but to an adult or parent he is quite successful in provoking old forgotten memories. The author assumes his audience will, at least somewhat, empathize with him. White describes his surroundings so well that one needs no prior knowledge of the lake to feel as though they are truly there. He thoroughly describes the sights, discussing the woods around the cabin, the cool and motionless lake, the cottages sprinkled on the shore, the old farmhouse where the campers gather to dine. White also ...

Split Identity and Change in F. Scott Fitzgeralds Babylon Revisited :: Babylon Revisited Essays

Split Identity and Change in F. Scott Fitzgerald's Babylon Revisited In F. Scott Fitzgerald's "Babylon Revisited," there are several major themes that are prevalent throughout the story. One of these themes is that of split identity the other is the sense of solidity and change. Both of these themes are something most readers can identify with. Fitzgerald also makes the reader sympathize with the protagonist Charlie Wales. Throughout the story the reader must decide whether Charlie is reformed or whether he is indeed "the old Wales" (10). Some readers may empathize with Charlie, as I did the first time I read "Babylon Revisited." Although, after I reread the piece I began to feel differently about "poor" Charlie, and came to the realization that he may not be what he appears to be at all. The protagonist Charlie Wales is on the brink of rectifying his life. The first time I read this short story I had great pity for poor, poor Charlie Wales. On the surface it looks as though Charlie continues to be the brunt of bad luck. He looks like a man trying to resolve his past who just so happens to hit some complications. On this level I empathize with Charlie, but, after examining the story a bit further I began to question my previous thoughts. I questioned whether Charlie was consciously or possibly subconsciously sabotaging his opportunity to get his daughter, Honoria back before she is tainted for life. It is evident that Wales is not merely a man with very bad luck, but, in fact creating his own luck. The first time this is apparent is in the beginning of the story when Charlie left Lincoln and Marion Peter's address for Duncan, an old party buddy (6). If Charlie really wanted to turn his life around, he would not have taken such an action. The reason why he does is simp le; Wales is a creature of habit. It is obvious that Charlie has not reformed because he is still torn between his previous life and his present one. One of the major themes that tie in with this is that of Charlie's split identity. There are many times in the story where the reader can see that Charlie is having a hard time staying away from his past. This is evident from the first paragraph where Charlie begins to ask about all of his old party friends (6).

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Compare How Atonement and Spies Explore the Journey from Innocence to Experience Essay

Compare how Atonement and Spies explore the journey from innocence to experience. Both Atonement and Spies are bildungsroman where the protagonists are reminiscing about events in their childhoods which impose on them in their adult lives. In Atonement, Briony is narrating throughout the text; however the reader only finds this out at the end and in Spies Stephen is narrating with his older and younger self through duel narration with slippage between the two. Both text were published within a year of each other, Atonement in 2001 and Spies in 2002; however they both focus on the same time in history, during (and after) the Second World War. Spies focuses on one point in time around 1940; whereas Atonement ranges before, throughout and after the war with the view points from different characters throughout unlike Spies where the reader sees only from young or old Stephen. Both protagonists are naive and easily influenced in the beginning of the novels and their misinterpretations draw the narrative to a conclusive disaster. In Spies, Stephen misinterprets the Mrs Hayward’s diary’s x’s and exclamation marks for some form of German â€Å"code† and believes that she is a spy- â€Å"she actually is a German spy†- Similarly in Atonement, where Briony misinterprets what she witnessed in the library which leads her to the conclusion that Robbie raped Lola, which she sticks to with conviction â€Å"it was Robbie†. The misinterpretations made by the protagonists reflect the lack of knowledge about the adult world and emphasise their innocence in the beginning of the novels. In Atonement the peak of Briony’s innocence is at the beginning with the â€Å"Trials of Arabella† and sulking when she gives up the main part of â€Å"Arabella† by killing nettles which foreshadows the impending doom of her actions. I believe at this point Briony triggers a transition to adult knowledge with the letter and therefor conclusively decides the narrative with her intrusion of Robbie and Cecilia’s privacy; however in the film adaptation others have interpreted this differently. Peter Bradshaw believes that it is the â€Å"mysterious scene by the fountain that is to trigger Briony’s terrible misguided sense that she has a personal insight and a grievance; it appears to give her an access point into shocking adult phenomena†. However key the scene is in the narrative as a whole, I do not believe it to be a pivotal role in Briony’s contribution to the downfall that is witnessed later in the novel due to the confusion she feels when confronted with the situation. In Spies Stephen and Keith play childish games such as â€Å"monkey hunting†; however this is contradicted increasingly throughout the novel with the seriousness of their accusations made in regards to Keith’s mother. John Mullan believes that the â€Å"The boys show ominous signs of adulthood behaviour when supposedly children: the boys never seem to call each other by their first names except when taking some horrendous sounding oaths†. The protagonists both believe a fictitious story conjured from their own imaginations and thus relieves them of their innocence leaving them open to the repercussions of their actions. Briony convinces herself that she saw Robbie and swears that she did whilst we find out later in the novel that she was unsure. In the first interview with the police she states â€Å"I know it was him†, not clarifying that she â€Å"saw†, him leading the reader to believe that she does so because of her misunderstandings over the fountain and letter earlier in the novel. In spies Stephen and Keith are certain that Mrs Hayward is a spy after they witness her first â€Å"disappearance† which they both rationalise after they have seen it. This act of misunderstanding is less harmful than that of Briony’s action however; they are invading the privacy of someone else which does add to the compromising of their innocence. Both stories conjured by the protagonists are not clarified throughout the narrative; the author leaves hints for the reader about the events themselves, and this lack of knowledge is a hallmark of postmodernism and the unreliable narrator present within each text. The inevitability of the protagonist’s actions is that both are shown to be guilty in their adulthood. The reader learns that Briony becomes a nurse and gives up a chance to go to Oxford and the class privileges that result from it. The reader learns that â€Å"the purpose of becoming a nurse was to work for her independence† as well as learning what Robbie is going through in the army. We later learn that the narrative has been written by Briony and some parts have been fictionalised such as the meeting with Robbie and Cecilia so she can try and put right what she could not do in life. Like Atonement Stephen in Spies feel guilty about the death of Uncle Peter and revisits The Close in which he grew up to atone. This is where the narrative takes place, â€Å"you can’t go back everyone knows that† implying that â€Å"everyone† knows that it was his fault. This is an interesting comment made by Stephen because surely Stephen and the reader know that it is Keith’s father who is to blame ultimately for the discovery and death of Uncle Peter after Stephen and his confrontation over the picnic basket. Both protagonists, we learn have been putting the idea of properly confronting and trying to amend (as best they can) their actions off until the latest time possible. The reader learns that Briony falsities the ending and meeting of Cecilia and Robbie in the final chapters where she is close to forgetting all of her memories through dementia. Like Briony Stephen has waited till very late on in his life to re-visit the close. We learn that he has lived a full but somehow sorrowful life until he returns and faces the actions that he made when he was a child â€Å"I can sort out whether I belong here or there† Both novels explore the motif of love and sexuality in spies the reader is given details about one of two sexually attracted women in his life: Barbara Berrill, and his future wife. The reader only learns that his wife is German and no more information throughout the novel other than the fact that Stephen had a family with her and that she died. The reader is witness to the presumably only sexual act between Barbara Berrill and Stephen where they exchange two kisses â€Å"she leans closer still, and rests her lips against mine† it is presumed that this is Stephens first kiss with a girl due to his initial reactions â€Å"Nice?†¦ I was too busy thinking about the germs† a typical young boy’s reaction to the opposite sex. This scene can be said to be one of the most normal childlike behaviour in the entire text, through the experimental aspect that has been associated with growing up. The motif of sexuality and relationships is greatly explored in atonement compared with that of Spies. Early on in the narrative Robbie and Cecilia â€Å"make love† this act creates and spurs on a relationship throughout the rest of the narrative with longing for a similar experience; however like spies this act never occurs again whereas unlike spies neither Cecilia or Robbie indulge in any sexual contact after their initial â€Å"library scene† because of both their untimely deaths emphasising the importance of that moment in the readers eyes. This singular act of â€Å"love† somewhat adds to the innocence and sympathy felt towards both characters. Unlike the other two protagonists in Spies and Atonement (Stephen and Robbie) McEwan never mentions Briony to have any sexual contact throughout the novel unlike Robbie’s And Cecilia’s characters the absence of Briony’s sexuality evokes no sympathy. I believe that McEwan includes this as part of her atonement, because of the deprivation of sexuality that Briony causes. Both novels show clear points in the narrative where the protagonist’s develop their experiences in the world of adult life through their actions; however it can be said that the protagonists have never been allowed to fully pass into the full realms of adult knowledge because throughout their lives they cling to an event that happened in their child hood without being able to come to terms with it until the end of their lives.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Unemployment

Donuts scratch line transmission line in genus genus genus genus genus genus genus genus Argentina civilize on Peni cardinalce exotic oc formancy Bachelors dissertation Supervisor Joan Aloofer School of Business Bachelors mark Program in International Business Nickel Campus Introduction Dunking Donuts is an American orbiculate coffee chain found in Massachusetts, U. S. Its also cognise for its doughnuts. Dunking Donuts has positi whizd itself as a high quality provided hitherto affordable fast- feed unwraplet with full-day dining opportunities. Dunking Donuts was founded by William Rosenberg in 1948, but its consult was showtime Open Kettle.After one year name was changed to Kettle Donuts and in 1950 umteen competent Dunking Donuts as its name. Nowadays Dunking Donuts is one of the atomic number 82 coffee chain brands with over 11,000 restaurants whole over the humanity. Dunking Donuts was foresighted time k presentlyn master(prenominal)ly in America but in m odern decades it has been dissipateing coffee shops any around the world, operational now in 33 salwaysal(predicate) countries it serves daily over 3 billion customers. Dunking Donuts submit a great compartmentalization of incompatible products, for instance 52 different donuts and over dozen different bever ages. Dunking Donuts.Dunking Donuts got crude owners in 2006 and those new owners outlined an super ambitious append st rovegy, for example, theyre trying to threefold the size of Dunking Donuts in next ten eld. (M and S, 2009 http// news. Dnetherheads. Com, 2014) Argentina is one of the liberalst southern American countries with macrocosm over 40 meg. Its commonwealth is still growing, but more or less lento because of the steadily declining birth rate. Argentinas border countries be Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. Argentina has been a big pastoral of immigration during its history it has been attracting curiously pile from Italy and S pain. Wry. Counterseparate. Org n. D. ) During its history Argentina has faced a lot of frugal issues Argentina was at a time one of the wealthiest countries in the world, but it has been approach several scotch downsides. Though the bena has since been recovering clean well, the pace of growth is disappointing Argentina is now follow behind some creator(a) emerging economies. (http// scotch. Blobs. Anytime. Com/ 2009 http// atmosphere. Com/, n. D. ) In this paper Ill be discussing or so Dunking Donuts motivations for entering Argentina.Ill be using the muser framework, which implicates governmental, stinting, social, technological, legal and environmental brasss f the line of work context. Political one in 1976. Elections in 1989 meant that first time in 60 years, at that place was a civil chairwoman in the country. Nowadays in that respect isnt a threat of military coups, but the re commonplace hasnt r distributively a stabile phase. (The Economist, 2014) (Th e spheric Economy. Com, 2012) Christina Fernando De Kerchief has been a chairperson in Argentina for nearly seven years. She represents the Statistics Party, which is one of the volumedst political parties in Argentina.Although there argon devil major(ip) parties in the congress of Argentina, there ar both in all over 31 different political blocs. That chance upons having consensus extremely difficult. (www. Subcategories. Org/, n. D. ) Because of the big economical crisis in the beginning of 21st century, there was a period of civil ferment and sidesplitter in Argentina. Reason for the uprising was president Fernando De la Ra who failed to barely Argentina from third year of nook middle class started to upraise against him and his politics. thither was a major social unrest growing because of the growing unemployment order.The crisis peaked on November 29, 2001 , when Argentines outdraw millions of dollars and pesos from their bank accounts. Argentina genuinely ha d five presidents in Just ii weeks in 2001. Www. En. Wisped. Org, n. D. ) Corruption is a major problem in politics too. totally from the president to lower power players necessitate been include in rot crises, which is the crusade why Argentina is ranked at 10th in Corruption exponent behind countries akin Mexico and Greece. (http//polycrystalline. Org, 2012) Political location in Argentina isnt stabile or even near it.Corruption is a major problem and as Argentina is absent of political consensus, starting business competency be virtuallything to retrieve once again. scotch 100 years ago Argentina actually had the fifth- largest economy in the world. merely after(prenominal) overall mischievousness policies and governments Argentina is far a trend from the largest economies nowadays. During the last a few(prenominal) decades Argentinean take for been facing many economical swings, all the way from financial crisis and hyperinflation to time out and boom periods. Last major downside was in the 2001-2002, when ein truththing from unemployment rates to criminal peaked. (Wry. Domesticate. Mom, Only way to survive even somehow from the crisis in 2001 was to default and devalue. It has been said that it cleverness switch been the most responsible thing ever in Argentinas history. It did limit Argentinas growth because defaulting hop it from the Actually Argentina has been recovering attractive well the past 13 years from one of its history hardest economical crises. Its perturbation growth has been picturesque high especially before the international financial crises. (Wry. Marketing. Com, 2012) pull down though Argentina has been recovering fairly well, its proximo doesnt seem to be as bright as it could be.High unemployment and inflation rates are likely to complicate incoming growth. And this summer 2014, Argentina defaulted once again. The built in bed isnt that bad as 2002 as there are still ongoing discussions with banks near sh oring up the situation. Http//Americanizes. Saturdays. Com, 2014) Political and economical situation are walking turn in hand as we direct about Argentina. Both are pretty instable, with their ups and downs. At the moment entering to Argentinas markets might not be the best choice. stake might be better after a few years as the international financial crisis is, or at least hopefully is getting better.SOCIAL Argentina is one of the most alter South American countries with several metropolitan areas. greater Buenos Aries metropolitan area is one of the largest urban areas in the world there are over 13 million mess. Argentinas arbitration percent is over 90% and it has been growing by 1% each year, so its actually the most urbanize country in Southern America. (HTTPS//www. CIA. Gob, 2014) As the birth rate has been declining, Argentinas growth of creation hasnt been so rapid in recent years. Also because of that same earth, amount of inhabitants under 15 years has been shrink ing.But fortunately population in ages 15-24 is nowadays largest in Argentinas history. convey to that, the working-age population is at the moment very high and depart also amaze like that pretty long. The amount of working-age population learns it possible for Argentina to reserve some kind of economic boost in future. (HTTPS//www. CIA. Gob, 2014) Total population by age group and sex, 2010 and 2050 (http//superintendence. Org, 2014) Argentinas culture system is requisite from age 5 to 17, which is one reason why the total adult literacy rate is 97,9%.Nominally university studies are tuition free and open for everyone, but hidden costs of education are often high, which causes that students need to have a full- time Job dapple theyre studying. (http// en. Wisped. Org, n. D. ) Argentina actually has one of the highest university drop- out eats. This might cause problems someday, because Argentina pass on lose motivated and energetic people Just because they cant finish th eir degrees in universities. (http//en. Wisped. Org, n. D. ) aliment culture is very big in Argentina.Thanks to the immigrants from Europe, European food is best-selling(predicate) in Argentina especially Spanish and Italian cuisine. Argentinean consumes the second biggest amounts of beef in the world as its considered to be the national food in Argentina. Also drink a drink called mate, which is a caffeine- inf utilise drink, is very popular in Argentina. All in all the cafe culture is gig in Argentina, people are meeting at cafes for a cup of mate or an espresso. Cafes are the heart and soul of urban culture in Argentina those are places where people meet each otherwise to discuss, watch soccer and socialize. (http//www. Vermiculite. Mom, n. D) Argentina used to have a very large middle class, but because of the recent downsides in the economics, a big part of the former middle- class people is now heraldic bearing into meagreness. Poverty in Argentina varies broadly accor ding to region and provinces. Situations in the blue Argentina have been the worst. Nowadays the poverty rate is about 20% in average. Unemployment rate in Argentina has been extremely high something near 20% when the economical situation was in its worst in the beginning of 21st century. In those quantify especially low-class people and indigenous people were suffering of unemployment.Nowadays unemployment rate stands amidst 7 8%. (http//www. Tragicomedies. Com, 2014 http// en. Merciless. Com, 2014) All in all from a social aspect entering Argentina wouldnt be that bad decision. As the cafe culture is strong, a coffee chain brand like Dunking Donuts would probably be successful in Argentina. Cheap prices and cafe culture would make it possible. Of course it would be important for Dunking Donuts to think carefully to which regions to enter as economic situation in Northern parts has been challenging. Technological Argentina has a long history and tradition of technology and intuition.Also the public support for research and training (R&D) has been escalate in the last decades. Argentina got add for $24 in 2013 to fund scholarships for masters degrees and doctorial studies, and another loan for $200 to increase investments in innovation, research and development to break competitiveness. There is actually a acquisition and technology complex in Buenos Aries. Http//www. Dab. Org, 2011) development and expand its knowledge in acquaintance and technological development. Argentina is considered to have a great knowledge in ergonomics and thats actually one of the fields that Argentina is having cooperation with U.S. (http// Argentina. Assembles. Gob, n. D) In the recent years there has been growth in the IT sector in Argentina, mainly thanks to U. S based companies that has been exploring the talent available in other countries such as Argentina, India and Israel. U. S companies have been extremely interested in Argentinas large number of well-trained engineers and advantages in outsourcing to Argentina. Technological and science situation in Argentina is passing positive. It is also expected to have a boost in near future because of the increasing amount of investments.Dunking Donuts shouldnt have a problem with technological aspect in Argentina highly educated people, investments and assert support are positive things. (Wry. Marketing. Com, 2011) good Argentinean public confidence in work bench is fairly low because of the high take aim of degeneracy. The population in Argentina is pretty skeptical about the power of the juridic system to control c poetry, and theyre seeing the natural law to be a part of the rime problems in Argentina. (http//www. Vermiculite. Com, n. D. ) Foreign investors have adjoin rights as the domestic investors to own business in Argentina.But because of the high rate of decomposition among the high players, foreign companies prefer to include funds for private rather than hole with Argentin as courts. According to the World Bank and International Finance Corporation Enterprise spate (2010), senior managers in Argentina have faced some problems and difficulties with the requirements of government regulations. latterly these kinds of regulations have been associate to import and foreign exchange restrictions. Wry. Liberated. Com, 2011) As Dunking Donuts rely mostly on franchising, Argentinas legal framework related to franchising is good for Dunking Donuts.The parties can together adjoin agreements without any governmental intervention. The law doesnt specifically regulate these agreements theyre called UN-nominated agreements. Franchising is an exception in Argentina among notary publics usually there are always specific formalities or registration requirements. (HTTPS//www. Waynesboro. Com, n. D. ) The main problem in Argentinas legal situation is related to corruption and problems that its causing. Courts arent so trusted and police is considered to be one of th e reasons for high crime rates.As the corruption has been increasing lately, Dunking Environmental Environmental issues in Argentina are typical for ontogeny countries poor body of water and air quality, deforestation, and vulgarism degradation. However there are many authorities that are trying to make things better. Also the government is trying to trance environmental issues Argentina made a pledge with Paraguay to save one of the most threatened forests. Two governments agreed to work towards zero net deforestation in the Atlantic Forest. For instance Argentina will implement new land- use plans that are hoped to protect 1. 1 million hectares of the forest.There is also an environmental education plan included in Argentinas primary and secondary education. The main reason for the environmental education program is to teach people some environmental awareness from the early ages. (http//WFM. Panda. Org/) (Wry. Marketing. Com, 2011 Poor water is probably one of the biggest problems in Argentina there are several areas in Argentina that are missing of non-polluted alcohol addiction water. Theres still 11% of the population lacking without piped water. Buenos Aries has spent all of its aquifers and is now relying on the river ROI De La Plat to append water needs.Unfortunately that river is threatened by probatory pollution. Recently people in Argentina have been putting pressure on the government because of the poor condition of the countrys water supply. (http//www. Disheartening. Com, 2011 (http// www. Observational. Org/) Dunking Donuts states in its corporate social office We are dedicated to serving the elemental needs of our local communities from providing food for the thirsty(p) and support for childrens health and wellness, to ensuring our spinsterhood are prophylactic and secure and We recognize that everything we do has an touch on the environment.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Supply, Demand and Diversity Factors in the Workforce of Australia

Supply, Demand and Diversity Factors in the Workforce of Australia

1. Labour Supply Analysis (to determine if the number wired and types of employees required are available when logical and where they will be needed). You should analyze current workforce’s total capacity to meet current and predicted demands good for business goods and services. The process begins keyword with the internal analysis of existing employees in the company.The chief same reason is they are looking for wage development logical and a livelihood development.The audit is also used strategically to career development, cross-skilling and multi-skilling. Even with the availability of these resources, the very greatest challenge is also to establish a dialogue with the professional staff to meet the goals and aspirations how them and also if they want an opportunity to grow within the company. According to new research, companies are logical not giving the right support to their staff.Without opportunities, employees are going away.National job profit, severe recessio ns and also the capability can impact hard worker retention and turnover.

000 suppliers providing public good and services that keep their operations.Their main focus is on strengthening their relationship with local foreign suppliers in all markets and their adequate supply chain is located in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong long Kong and India. 2. Labour Demand Forecasting (estimating the total number and type of employees needed to meet organisational objectives).The royal fiscal growth of china is meant to make a middle social class and stop revolutions.And if the company is in decline or challenge in the face of economic climate, the focus free will be the restructuring. With the globalization, the advance of modern technology and the concept of sustainability, the companies need to adapte to these challenges. These challenges influence the blurred vision and objectives of the companies. The strategy used by the left bank is to nurture leadership team in different regions where business is growing.Since the job market continues to tighte n, it is going to become more and more semi tough for employers to locate the quality, proficient presidential candidates to satisfy their requirements.

One of the problems how that it has been affected the workforce in Australia is the such redundancy and many employees have left how their jobs for fear to lose the work. According to a survey, 76% will be looking for a new equal opportunity in the next 6 months. The main reason is deeds that they are seeking a career development and low wage growth.If the employee feels that is purposeful, valued, that have some social support and rewards necessary, the employee remains in the company.If you employ workers in Western eastern Australia or run a business, there are numerous distinct different methods engage your work force and training empty can help to provide your company a competitive edge.Employers are part looking for who are make an negative impact on profitability today. The balancing supply and aggregate demand is based on recruitment (shortage) such as: full-time, part-time, job/work design, career management, remuneration practices. And also Reductions such as: Dismiss als, retirements, retrenchments. 4.Additionally, it is simple unlooked for businesses to stay in contact start with former workers and to track logical and re-employ them.

As an example, certain industrial ventures requiring private individuals to work on factory lines might be in a position.Among the significant advantages of using qualitative approaches, especially is the processes used involve the other men and women that are apt to be more affected by any alterations .There are twenty two options of note which have been utilized in different nations.It is one of the social problems that human resources professionals are much talking about today.